Summary and Synthesis Report #3

Trinh Lê

ENGL 300

14 May 2018

Summary and Synthesis Report #3

            Summary:

In the eleventh chapter of What Writing Does and How It Does It, Charles Bazerman talks about how concepts such as social facts, speech acts, genres, genre systems, and activity systems have contributions to text. He says, “these concepts suggest how people using text create new realities of meaning, relation, and knowledge” (Bazerman 309). In other words, text plays a huge role because it influences how people speak to each other. The various concepts are connected because “social facts, speech acts, and genres fit together as genre sets within genre systems, which are part of systems of human activity” (Bazerman 311). Comprehending these concepts can help people be critical readers and be aware of how texts work.

Synthesis:

In the first chapter of Feminism and Affect at the Scene of Argument: Beyond the Trope of the Angry Feminist by Barbara Tomlinson, she talks about the misconceptions that people have about feminism. Feminists are perceived to be angry and man-hating due to their beliefs. Tomlinson introduces feminist socioforensic discursive analysis, which “seeks to reshape how we construe, critique, and transcend the always already gendered nature of public and scholarly texts, their interpretation, their disaggregation, and the consequences of their framing as “objective” or “subjective,” “scientific” or “political” (Tomlinson 18). It is created to counter tropes like the angry feminists. Tomlinson’s work about feminism and feminist socioforensic discursive analysis connects to the eleventh chapter of What Writing Does and How It Does It by Bazerman because they both deal with interpretations of texts. Bazerman speaks about the different concepts contributing to text while Tomlinson talks about reshaping the text so people will not be confused about the true definition of feminism.

In the first chapter of Feminist Research in Theory and Practice, Gayle Letherby also talks about the misunderstandings people have about feminism. Very similar to Barbara Tomlinson’s Feminism and Affect at the Scene of Argument: Beyond the Trope of the Angry Feminist, Letherby discusses feminism and the typical tropes feminists tend to have. She expresses her disappointment when she says, “many women today are still afraid of being stereotyped as bra-burning, man-hating lesbians and are not aware of, or feel unable to acknowledge the impact of, feminism on their lives” (Letherby 34). It is depressing to witness many women not admitting that feminism is a good thing without being labeled as angry or man-hating. Letherby’s work about feminism connects to the eleventh chapter of What Writing Does and How It Does It because they both speak about the interpretation of text and language. Letherby states, “language reflects the centrality of power and authority and that we need to study how particular groups are able to control specific institutions which are able to construct dominant frameworks of meaning, and consider how and why meanings are constructed into theory, into truth” (Letherby 34). This statement mostly refers to feminism and how some people do not know what it truly represents. People assume feminists hate men but in reality, they only want equality. Of course, feminism has many categories and it gets more complicated than just wanting equality but believing it is about hating men is incorrect.

In the seventh chapter of What Writing Does and How It Does It, Paul Prior talks about texts and how they come into being. “Texts come from – in terms of their authorship and social contexts as well as their content and textual organization – by careful tracing of their histories” (Prior 196-197). It is important to fully understand the text and recognize its origin. Prior’s work connects to Bazerman’s chapter later in the book because they deal with text. In the seventh chapter, Prior speaks about text and tracing the writing process. Meanwhile, Bazerman talks about different concepts like social facts, speech acts, genres, genre systems, and activity systems and how they contribute to the interpretation of texts in the last chapter of What Writing Does and How It Does It. Both men explain in great details about the importance of texts because they have huge influences on how people speak and understand them.

Questions:

  1. There are people who do not know the truth about feminism and think it is about hating men. Can you think of a belief that most people think incorrectly about?
  2. Most people assume feminism is about dominating over men but it is about equality for both sexes. Have you ever explained the true definition of feminism to someone before? If so, did they understand it? How did it go?
  3. People interpret text differently. Have you ever encountered a text that you have different opinions on than other people?

Word Count: 889

Works Cited

Bazerman, Charles. “Speech Acts, Genres, and Activity Systems: How Texts Organize Activity and People.” Bazerman, Charles, and Paul Prior, editors. What Writing Does and How It Does It: An Introduction to Analyzing Texts and Textual Practices. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Letherby, Gayle. “Feminist Research in Theory and Practice.” 2003. PDF File.

Prior, Paul. “How Texts Come into Being.” Bazerman, Charles, and Paul Prior, editors. What Writing Does and How It Does It: An Introduction to Analyzing Texts and Textual Practices. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Tomlinson, Barbara. “Feminism and Affect at the Scene of Argument: Beyond the Trope of the Angry Feminist.” 2010. PDF File.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Writing Prompts

  1. Students dismissing books that they don’t like in school. Without reading critically, some students usually use their gut instinct to deem if a certain book is good or not.
  2. The Parkland students being brushed aside for showing emotions in the beginning. People think their sad emotions override their arguments but when a video of them smiling on Ellen comes up, the students get bashed on for not being depressed about the shooting.

Paradigm Shift Video Project

 

Mass shootings in America have been increasing in occurrences and severity within our generation. (Black title Card)

Each year brings new shootings that outdo the ones from years prior. (Black title card)

*news coverage from Columbine*

*news coverage from V-Tech*

*news coverage from Sandy Hook*

*news coverage from CO Movie Theater*

*news coverage from Pulse*

*news coverage form Las Vegas*

*thoughts and prayers hard stop*

*Parkland news coverage*

*We Call B.S*

*Student Interviews*

*Introducing March For Our Lives*

*Footage from MFOL*

*proposed policy changes*

*NRA changes*

This paradigm shift has yet to conclude, but the cogs of social change have been set in motion.

 

Summary and Synthesis Report #2

Trinh Lê

ENGL 300

18 April 2018

Summary and Synthesis Report #2

            Summary:

In the first chapter of Reading Chinese Fortune Cookie: The Making of Chinese American Rhetoric, LuMing Mao introduces a concept called rhetorical borderlands. They are “physically present wherever two or more cultures edge each other, where people of different races occupy the same territory, where under, lower, middle, and upper classes touch, where the space between two individuals shrinks with intimacy” (Mao 20). The examples that are brought up multiple times throughout the reading are Chinese American rhetoric and the fortune cookie. Chinese American rhetoric is the hybrid of Chinese and European American rhetorical traditions and it’s “viable and transformative by participating in a process of becoming where meanings are situated and where significations are contingent upon each and every particular experience” (Mao 4-5). Thanks to rhetorical borderlands, Chinese American rhetoric exist as a new form of expression. The fortune cookie, on the other hand, is an example of Chinese American rhetoric. It represents a mix of Chinese and European American traditions because “the pastry is used as a form of communication, which is a tradition that started in fourteenth-century China, but the dessert being served at the end of a meal is a European American tradition because the Chinese traditionally do not eat dessert at the end of the meal” (Mao 4). The fortune cookie is the product of the Chinese and European American traditions, thus a perfect example of Chinese American rhetoric.

Synthesis:

In the first chapter of Digital Griots: African American Rhetoric in a Multimedia Age, Adam J. Banks talks about the combination of African American culture and technology, which contribute to African American rhetoric. To inform the readers, Banks says that “European Americans created the nation’s technology while African Americans created the nation’s survival technology, which is music, dance, storytelling, and sermonizing that creates a forum of existential affirmation through physicality, spirituality, joy, and sexuality” (Banks 18). Technology has a huge contribution because it can help young African-Americans see themselves being represented well in the media and spread multiple stories in the African American community. The digital griot “offers a useful model for conceptualizing black rhetorical excellence bridging print, oral, and digital communication” (Banks 25). Banks’ book about African American Rhetoric connects with Mao’s Reading Chinese Fortune Cookie: The Making of Chinese American Rhetoric because they’re both American ethnic rhetorics. Mao speaks about Chinese American rhetoric and how it derives from Chinese and European American rhetorical traditions while Banks talks about African American rhetoric and the influence of technology.

In the third chapter of Voices of the Self, Keith Gilyard analyzes the difference between Black English and Standard English. Black English is spoken by African-Americans; it’s seen as unprofessional in mainstream settings. Gilyard was concerned with his college students in 1980 because he worked “with Black students who, for the most part, have been ill-prepared by the public schools to write the Standard English demanded of them” (Gilyard 11). He also acknowledges that he wants the students to succeed without losing their own sense of identity. An example that the author provides for Black English is the error in noun-verb agreement, like “What is they doin Sherry?” (Gilyard 28). To use Standard English, Gilyard uses code-switching as a communicative strategy, “by which the skillful speaker uses his knowledge of how language choices are interpreted in his community to structure the interaction to maximize outcomes favorable to oneself” (Gilyard 31). He learns how to go back and forth between Black English and Standard English to communicate with different people. A similarity that Gilyard and Mao share is the problem they deal with in their ethnic communities. Gilyard talks about Black English, Standard English, and code-switching between the two languages while Mao discusses Chinese American rhetoric.

In the fourth chapter of What Writing Does and How It Does It, Charles Bazerman talks about intertextuality and how texts rely on other texts. He says, “our originality and craft as writers come from how we put those words together in new ways to fit our specific situation, needs, and purposes, but we always need to rely on the common stock of language we share with others” (Bazerman 83). Sometimes we take inspiration from other people and incorporate it into our own text without realizing it. This statement from Bazerman connects to a sentence from Mao’s Reading Chinese Fortune Cookie: The Making of Chinese American Rhetoric, which talks about “Chinese American rhetoric being realized by others’ experience, not only by our own” (Mao 19). Both authors encourage writers to take inspiration from other people’s experience and acknowledge the different perspectives because everyone is different.

Questions:

  1. In Reading Chinese Fortune Cookie: The Making of Chinese American Rhetoric, we learn that fortune cookie is an example for Chinese American rhetoric. Can you think of an example for an ethnic rhetoric?
  2. What are some similarities Chinese American rhetoric and African American rhetoric share? What are the differences?
  3. Gilyard explains that he used code-switching to communicate with other people. Have you ever done something similar to this?

Word Count: 932

Works Cited

 

Banks, Adam J. “Digital Griots: African American Rhetoric in a Multimedia Age.” 2010. PDF File.

Bazerman, Charles. “Intertextuality: How Texts Rely on Other Texts.” Bazerman, Charles, and Paul Prior, editors. What Writing Does and How It Does It: An Introduction to Analyzing Texts and Textual Practices. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Gilyard, Keith. “Voices of the Self: A Study of Language Competence.” 1991. PDF File.

Mao, LuMing. “Reading Chinese Fortune Cookie: The Making of Chinese American Rhetoric.” 2006. PDF File.